In 1664 Moses Baruh Lousada #46 (here named Moses Baruh), David Abravanel (here named Emanuel Martinez Dormido) and Elias de Lima successfully petitioned Charles 2 against malicious legal action by rival merchants (see above extract from Bevis Marks Records 1 plate III). Jacob Sasportas reported that the King ‘chuckled and spat on the business; and a written statement was issued from him, duly signed, affirming that no untoward measures had been or would be initiated against us’ (ref 12 p292).
The 'records and accounts' of the community (
ref 97) contains a wealth of data on the workings of the re-established London Jewish community. In folio 6a 'The Libro' can be found an early signature of Moses Baruh Lousada #46 (here named Moseh Baruh Louzada) and David Abravanel (here named David Abrabanel Dormido). Elias de Lima (the other original Mahamad member) is here called Eliau de Limma. The Haham Jacob Sasportas (1610-98; born in Oran, Morocco) was briefly spiritual leader of the community in 1666 but then settled in Amsterdam to avoid the Plague. His signature is in cursive Hebrew script (top centre). The long-term associate (see note 1 below) of Moses Baruh Lousada appears above (with remarkably similar handwriting) as Jahacob Gomez Serra. Their common trading aliases were Antonio Louzada and Antonio Gomes Serra.


A late signature of Moses Baruh Lousada #46 can be found
on the 1696 order by the Bevis Marks Mahamad barring silver and gold exports. Here he spells his name Mosehe Baruh Louzada (part 1 of Bevis Marks Records plate IX)


 Moses Baruh Lousada #46 - early community leader of the London Spanish and Portuguese Jewish congregation


In 1657 the new London community of Spanish and Portuguese Jews established a meeting place in Creechurch Lane and the Velho (old) cemetery off Mile End Road. Hyamson (ref 6) notes that in 1660 informers attempting to secure the destruction of the newly resettled community listed 'Moses and Jacob (see note 5 below) Baruh or Barrow (see note 10 below), better known as Baruh Lousada'. But undeterred by such intrigue the congregation elected its first formal Mahamad (governing body) in late 1663, with Moses Baruh Lousada #46 elected Gabay (treasurer) on 18 November 1663. The signatories to the first Code of Ascamot (synagogue by-laws) unsurprisingly include him (see note 13 below). Soon enough the first 3 members of the Mahamad had an urgent and vital task to perform - see top left-hand image - and as noted in Bevis Marks Records I:9 this was the first time the community had obtained an authoritative written statement which recognized the privileges enjoyed since 1656. Then from Hyamson we learn that Moses returned to the Mahamad in 1668 and 1683, was a signatory of the Code of Ascamot of 1677, and was a 'seatholder' in 1682, and as can be seen above he signed a Mahamad order in 1696 as a yehidim (ordinary community member). His selection for a key early role in the community may stem from the fact that he was a cousin of Abraham Israel Pereira a key financier of Maunel Soeiro aka Menasseh ben Israel 1604-57, the leading advocate for Jewish resettlement of England, whilst community leader David Abravanel appears to have been a brother-in-law of Menasseh ben Israel

Moses Baruh Lousada became a broker of the City of London in 1679 (ref 5). The payments by Moses to the London Jewish community put him in the middle rank of merchants (ref 97). A key trading link was with his brother Aaron Baruh Lousada, in Barbados from 1659 until he died there in 1695, but this link was in the context of a family business which evolved as the family progressively reached Amsterdam. Amsterdam tax payments tell us much about the whereabouts of the family in the second half of the 17th century. To begin with Isaac, the uncle of Moses Baruh Lousada was in Livorno during the 1640-60 period but reached Amsterdam by 1662. Though as indicated above Moses Baruh Lousada #46 first appears in London in 1660, he had been an annual visitor (if not a resident) in Amsterdam in the period 1649-59. Moses returned to Amsterdam briefly in 1663 and 1665, whilst Jacob moved there in 1662 where he died in 1681. His cousin (see note 16 below) David was also in Barbados around 1664, having links with Curacao and perhaps Surinam, before he appeared in Amsterdam in 1672. Another (also younger) Barbados cousin was Abraham #45 (ref 5) though ultimately Abraham came to London (see note 9 below) from where he spent much time in Amsterdam (see note 12 below). Late in his life, Moses Baruh Lousada may have been in the diamond trade with India (see note 2 below) which does not seem to have successful but the family had evidently accumulated some wealth before Moses and David died, for it owned stock in the Bank of England late in their lives and for a period thereafter (see note 14 below).

The name Antonio Fernandes Louzada appears in Amsterdam records and given the handwriting (see note 15 below) we consider this was a 1649 alias of Moses #46 who later became known in London as simply Antonio Louzada. Before moving to Livorno where David #44 was born, the family was probably in Madrid with associated families. Whether Moses ever went to Livorno with his father Abraham #2149 is unknown but he went to London via France (see note 11), and the 1649 document suggests that the French location was Rouen. Moses seems to have married (at least) twice with both known wives being of the Henriques Faro family (see note 3 below). His long-term business partner (see above) bore the Serra name used by the Montezinos family and also the Gomes name. Perhaps because of the prevalence of the Plague during his time in London, his own family was small with only 2 sons Abraham #1352 (see notes 4 and 9 below) and Mordecai #66 (see note 4 below), and a daughter Sarah #257 (see note 6 below), reaching adulthood (see also note 8 below)Mordecai left no marriage record though may have had a son 'Moses Barrow', while Sarah in Amsterdam produced surviving children but no grandchildren, and Abraham have produced one surviving child (see note 7 below) but no grandchildren. Moses #46 died on 3 Adar 5459 (ref 98) ie 2 Feb 1699 and was buried at the Velho Cemetery. From Amsterdam Sarah's husband and 2 sons (one called Moses) appeared in a London court case in 1738 between 2 branches of the Bernal family, but it seems the line of Moses #46 came to an end in London and Amsterdam just about the time his grand-nephew Jacob #36 arrived in London from Jamaica in 1743.



1. Jacob Gomes Serra, written above as Jahacob Gomez Serra, was also known as Antonio Gomesera. He outlasted Moses Baruh Lousada, dying on 4 Kislev 5467 or 10 Nov 1706. From Hyamson we learn that Gomes Serra was Gabay in 1667 and 1674, and on the Mahamad in 1691,1697 and 1700. From ref 37 we learn that 'in the years immediately following the Fire of London, in addition to the da Costas, it is Michael Levy, Gomes Rodrigues, and the partnership of Anthony Gomeserra and Moses Baruh Lousada trading as Serra & Lousada, that are the most prominent among the Jewish importers. Linen from N.W. Europe and sugar from Barbados and the Azores formed the bulk of their trade'. A daughter of Jacob Gomes Serra married Abraham Franco at Bevis Marks in 1698 (BMR 2 #55). A customs incident at Falmouth, involving Antonio Gomes Serra and Antonio Louzada, is well known. Holly Snyder in her essay in ‘Atlantic Diasporas’ (ref 8) informs us that in 1680 a customs agent Samuel Hayne from Falmouth examined the cargo of the ship Experiment only to find that the goods entered under the name of the English Quaker captain were in fact consigned to 35 different traders – all Jewish in Hayne’s account. She goes on to say that Hayne asserted that the Jewish merchants were not entitled to conduct trade as English subjects and duty was payable as the ship was en route from Barbados ultimately to Amsterdam and did not unload at Falmouth for inspection as the law for aliens required. Then we learn that Hayne was resisted in law by Antonio Gomez Serra and Antonio Louzada, merchants based in London, who had been granted Patents of Endenization from the Crown in 1672 and 1675 respectively. The jury, by some accounts perhaps bribed, concluded that the goods belonged to Gomez Serra and Louzada.  Ref 117(p64) gives another slant - Hayne refused bribes, and pressure in London on the authorities cost Hayne his job. This incident illustrates how the Amsterdam/Barbados trade via England worked - London representation was required to provide English involvement in the trade with the English colonies - principally Surinam (until 1667), Barbados and Jamaica - and to comply with mercantilist policies such as the Navigation Acts of 1651 and 1660 which were aimed at the Dutch and which restricted trade of colonial goods to English destinations. Further detail can be found in refs 61 and 339. A connection yet to be explored is that the Serra name was one used by the Levi Montezinos family (ref 153), with whom the Baruch Lousadas have several connections going back to Villaflor and Livorno. The Gomes Serra name thus suggests a Lamego marriage to a Levi Montezinos since the Gomes name appears amongst the early Lamegos.

2. Edgar Samuel found that in 1696 Sir Francis Child a Fleet Street goldsmith/banker and 'Jeweller in Ordinary' to King William 3 organized a syndicate of 17 London jewelers to send £2500 out to Abraham Pluymer to buy diamonds in Madras. Moses Barrow (Lousada) was one of the 17. In ref 84 p144 can be found reference to a 1700 diamond delivery to the value of £11,329 to Moses Barrow (Barukh Lousada) and Joseph Gomes. Moses Baruh Lousada died in 1699 so it is somewhat unclear whether this shipment arrived posthumously, or whether it and perhaps even the first item of diamond business was instead attributable to his (probable) grandson of the same name (the Bank of England shareholder discussed elsewhere). The name Joseph Gomes may refer to the son Joshua of Jacob Gomes Serra (discussed in note 1 above). The second transaction was not profitable, so perhaps the next generation was learning the ropes!

3. In the 15 Elul 5442 circumcision record (in ref 96 ptIV) Moses Enriques Faro a 'forasteiro' or outsider (perhaps a newly-arrived Portuguese) - was given as an uncle, and whilst this is not certain he was probably an uncle of the wife of Moses #46. Because Abraham #1352 (estimated on the circumcision evidence to be aged about 30 years in 1682) and Sarah #257 (born 1681) seem to have been born about 30 years apart. Thus Moses had 2 known marriages - both to a Henriques Faro and thus Abraham and Sarah were half-siblings. We have illustrated this connection which as will be observed received strong support from the will of Jacob Israel Pereira for the 2nd wife Rachel was Jacob's niece. These 2 marriages of Moses Baruch Lousada #46 were not recorded as Jewish marriages in London or Amsterdam. We have inferred that the 2nd marriage of David #44 was a secular one probably in France, later ratified in 1673 after David arrived in Amsterdam which he did by 1672. Perhaps Moses also had his 2 marriages in France but their location is of course related to the diaspora of the Henriques Faro family which is not well known. However the 2nd secular marriage must have been after Moses started his permanent residence in London (given Rachel's age). The 1st secular marriage could have occurred before Moses first appeared in London in 1660, for Abraham #1352 produced a son in 1682 and was probably only a boy in 1660. Rouen is a possibility being convenient to London and Amsterdam (see note 11 for the evidence that Moses came to London via France).

4. The circumcision of a son of Abraham #1352 (see note 3) shows it took place in the house of Moses Baruh Lousada 'father of Abraham and Mordehay'. The newborn grandson may have been the first named and hence named Moses and we suggest he became Moses #67 of Barbados and London. Moses was given 2 sons in the Benjamin Barrow Lousada family tree (one with the name Moses - which raised a cautionary note since we have found from Amsterdam marriage data that the incidence of same-name sons is only 2% and indeed as just noted we conclude that Moses was Moses #67 a grandson not a son), but we found that 6 or 7 sons were suggested in ref 85. Ref 6 p27 suggested 'three of his brothers and also his two sons settled in Barbados and Jamaica' whereas we shall see he did not have brothers in Jamaica. However his son Abraham #1352 does appear to have settled in Barbados, while Mordecai who acted as an executor of his father's affairs after 1699 as the family financial settlement shows, does appear to have then been absent from London (as Moses #67 not Mordecai became the Bank of England stockholder) and may have gone to Jamaica. One daughter Sarah survived to adulthood and was married in Bevis Marks in 1709 to cousin Solomon son of David #44 and went to live in Amsterdam (see note 6 below) where she had 2 children (see Amsterdam Baruch Lousadas).

5. Probably Jacob was a cousin, being a son of Isaac #42. Aaron #376 of Barbados was the son not of Isaac but David. It is likely that Moses was also a cousin of Aaron, for there are several reasons to consider he was a son of Abraham #2149 who left other offspring in Livorno (the naming of his son Abraham #1352 - see 9 below is relevant here - as is his possible role in Terra Santa grant applications which were made during his Amsterdam appearances in the years 1649-59). This scenario appears here.

6. The daughter Sarah appears in the 1695 census lists (ref 102) where we see a Moses Barrew with wife Rachel, a bachelor Mordechai and a child Sarah who would have been almost a generation later than her brothers Abraham and Mordecai. From Part 2 of Bevis Marks Records we find the marriage of Sarah on 15 Kislev 5469 or 28 Nov 1708 (to a cousin - see family chart). The marriage of Sarah's was also recorded in 1709 in Amsterdam and this latter record reveals that her uncle was Abraham Henriques Faro (see note 3). The circumcision and other birth records (part IV of Bevis Marks Records) show a daughter of Moses was born 24 Sivan 5439 but not to the 2nd wife Rachel who was born in 1681. The 1679 newborn was thus probably not Sarah whom the above census data shows was a child in 1695; almost certainly Sarah was Rachel's daughter.

7.  Mordecai appears in the Benjamin Barrow Lousada family tree and was buried at the Velho Cemetery in 1721. Another Mordecai was buried in 1733 - and we have no basis for distinguishing them but perhaps they were cousins as shown in our chart of London Baruch Lousadas.

8. The circumcision and other birth records (part IV of ref 96) show (for 27 Tamuz 5446) another son of Moses though as he does not appear in the 1695 census he may not have survived childhood.

9. Confusingly both cousin Abraham #45 and son Abraham #1352 were fathers in the 1680s and 1690s. Abraham #45 was born about 1645 in Livorno and died in 1714; he was a lot younger that Moses #46 who was born in 1629 probably in Madrid. Abraham #1352 was perhaps born around 1655 in Rouen, so may have been only 10 years younger than Abraham #45. We can distinguish the 2 Abrahams by pointing to Luna's name which echoes that of her paternal grandmother Luna #43 making her the daughter of Abraham #45. We therefore suggest that it is Abraham #45 who figures in the 1695 census in St James Duke's Place as Abraham Barrew (merchant) with wife Rebecca, daughter Luna and son Aaron. The circumcision records (part IV of Bevis Marks Records) show (for 6 Nisan 5455 which is 22 March 1695 or thereabouts) a son of Abraham. This son could have (just - see ref 154) been the Aaron who appeared in the 1695 census. There is only one grave of Abraham Baruh Lousada known in ref 98 (it is #428) - ignoring the Abraham de Lousada (#642 of ref 98) who was the father-in-law and probable brother of the NY chocolate merchant Jacob Lousada - but we suggest that it was Abraham #45 who was buried at Velho Cemetery in 1714 - a date consistent with him appearing in the will of Jacob Israel Pereira who died in 1707. Abraham #1352 probably went to Barbados - see here note 12 - but after Abraham #45 left and after Aaron #376 died there in 1695. From Part 1 of Bevis Marks Records we learn that a self-census of members of the community (414 persons in total) shows an Abraham Baruch Loisada (and wife) plus Moseh Baruch Loisada (plus wife, son and daughter). This survey was conducted around 1680 by Abraham Israel Zagache and the relevant document was found in Amsterdam. Zagache arrived in London in 1680 and in Hamburg in 1684. This evidence suggests Abraham #1352 was recorded before the birth of the son circumcised in 1682 (see note 4 above) and that Abraham #45 had not yet arrived from Barbados. In addition we learn that in the London Directory of 1677 appears 'Moses Baruch Loisada, or Louzada' entered as 'Moses Barrew' in Duke's Place - and the absence of Abraham in this evidence suggests that Abraham #1352 had not left his father's house and unsurprisingly confirms that Abraham #45 had not yet arrived from Barbados.

10. The fact that one of his London names was Moses Barrow (ref 6) did not make him an ancestor of the Barrows! Their Barrow surname arose in Barbados.

11. A Moses Baruch Lousada came to London via France (ref 121 - this data comes from before 1676 and thus could apply to either Moses #46 or Moses #1419). It is possible this person came via Rouen, which played a key role in the resettlement of Jews in England (see ref 357) and where the Lamegos operated a trading business for several generations in the 1617-1653 period (and perhaps longer) before retreating to Bordeaux. Moses #46 was first known in Amsterdam in 1649 (see ref 322) and then regularly in Amsterdam 1649-59, but possibly not a permanent resident as he did not pay the 'finta', and perhaps he was a regular visitor from France until 1660 when he made a permanent move to London (from where he continued his practice of visiting Amsterdam for as the synagogue tax records show he made visits to Amsterdam in 1663 and 1665). Accordingly we identify the person in ref 121 with Moses #46 and thus consider that his probable uncle Moses #1419 came to London just before his death in 1677 - that is, he arrived in London after the date of the survey in ref 121, and was there only briefly before he died. The plausible source of  Moses #1419 is that he was born in Portugal around 1586 as probably the last son of Amador de Lousada.

12. The 2 Abrahams - #45 and #1352 - are distinguished in note 9 above and the Amsterdam travel of Abraham #45 is further discussed here (in note 6). Abraham #45 was known in London in the 1995 London census, but in 1698 appears to have been in Amsterdam where he lent his name to a character reference (ref 175 #1). He had received a pass to travel to Amsterdam on 17 Apr 1696 (ref 182) the same day that his brother David and nephew Jacob/James received their passes to travel to Barbados. It seems that Abraham went to Amsterdam to cover for his brother while David was in Barbados presumably to rearrange the family business in the wake of their Barbados brother Aaron's death on 16 Sep 1695. It was the uncle Abraham #45 who appeared in the 1703 will of Jacob Israel Pereira (ref 141) as the last surviving Baruch Lousada cousin of his father Abraham Israel Pereira. Both Abrahams are shown in our chart of the Barbados Baruch Lousadas and in our charts of the London Baruch Lousadas. Abraham #45 also appears in our chart of the Amsterdam Baruch Lousadas.

13. As Edgar Samuel advised in his email of 31 Jan 2013 Moses Baruh Lousada had been given the task of writing the first Code of Ascamot. This task would not have been given to a new arrival from Portugal; indeed his uncle Isaac #42 lived as a Jew in Livorno in the 1640-1660 period. Moses was a regular visitor to Amsterdam in the 1649-59 period. He had no doubt acquired much knowledge of Jewish rite after leaving Madrid.

14. The Bank of England stockholder was also named Moses Baruh Lousada. In fact there were 3 more or less contemporaneous London people called Moses Baruh Lousada - one who died in 1677, Moses #46, and the Bank of England stockholder. This has caused confusion which we have clarified elsewhere. There, in note 1, we see that the Bank of England stockholder who collected dividends after 1699 (when Moses #46 died) was probably a grandson Moses #67 of Moses #46 via Abraham #1352. When young he was probably in Barbados with his father (see here note 12).

15. On 14 Apr 2017 Michael Waas pointed out a 1649 notary deed (see ref 201) from Amsterdam Notary Archives signed by Antonio Fernandes Lousada - in a handwriting similar to that shown in the images above. This might suggest that Moses #46 was the son of Fernando, first son of Amador de Lousada. Fernando's family remained in Vinhais - which is where the Coimbra Inquisition arrested them around 1658. However Fernando's son Antonio was imprisoned by the Coimbra Inquisition in 1658. Rather we suggest here that Moses #46 was the son of Abraham #2149, whom we identify here as Antonio. Our thinking here is that Moses may have been baptised Fernando son of Antonio, and thus in crafting a trading alias in Rouen he seems to have used the reverse form ie Antonio Fernandes which of course mirrors the name of Antonio Fernandes de Carvajal of Rouen and co-founder of the London community! As the 1649 deed gives his age as 20, and as we place the Baruch Lousadas in Madrid in the 1630s, the Barrow Family Tree was possibly correct in suggesting he was born in 1629 in Spain. As we suggest (see note 11 above) Moses #46 travelled to London via France, he may not have gone to Livorno or only briefly.

16. Our discussion of David #44 and the family financial settlement of 1699 - made after the death of Moses #46 and before David's death in the same year - shows David had a probable brother Moses #1585 of Surinam and Curacao, meaning that Moses #46 and David #44 were not brothers of each other. Rather, David was a probable full brother of Abraham #45 of Barbados, London and Amsterdam and Moses #1585 of Surinam and Curacao. On the other hand Moses #46 appears to have been a son of Abraham #2149 of Livorno - the naming of his son Abraham #1352 suggests this and there is Terra Santa evidence from Amsterdam which is supportive - see here note note 5.